encoder.c 74.1 KB
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/*****************************************************************************
 * x264: h264 encoder
 *****************************************************************************
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 * Copyright (C) 2003-2008 x264 project
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 *
 * Authors: Laurent Aimar <fenrir@via.ecp.fr>
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 *          Loren Merritt <lorenm@u.washington.edu>
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 *
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
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 * Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02111, USA.
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 *****************************************************************************/

#include <math.h>

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#include "common/common.h"
#include "common/cpu.h"
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#include "set.h"
#include "analyse.h"
#include "ratecontrol.h"
#include "macroblock.h"

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#if VISUALIZE
#include "common/visualize.h"
#endif

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//#define DEBUG_MB_TYPE

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#define NALU_OVERHEAD 5 // startcode + NAL type costs 5 bytes per frame
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#define bs_write_ue bs_write_ue_big

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static void x264_encoder_frame_end( x264_t *h, x264_t *thread_current,
                                    x264_nal_t **pp_nal, int *pi_nal,
                                    x264_picture_t *pic_out );

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/****************************************************************************
 *
 ******************************* x264 libs **********************************
 *
 ****************************************************************************/
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static float x264_psnr( int64_t i_sqe, int64_t i_size )
{
    double f_mse = (double)i_sqe / ((double)65025.0 * (double)i_size);
    if( f_mse <= 0.0000000001 ) /* Max 100dB */
        return 100;

    return (float)(-10.0 * log( f_mse ) / log( 10.0 ));
}

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static void x264_frame_dump( x264_t *h )
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{
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    FILE *f = fopen( h->param.psz_dump_yuv, "r+b" );
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    int i, y;
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    if( !f )
        return;
    /* Write the frame in display order */
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    fseek( f, h->fdec->i_frame * h->param.i_height * h->param.i_width * 3/2, SEEK_SET );
    for( i = 0; i < h->fdec->i_plane; i++ )
        for( y = 0; y < h->param.i_height >> !!i; y++ )
            fwrite( &h->fdec->plane[i][y*h->fdec->i_stride[i]], 1, h->param.i_width >> !!i, f );
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    fclose( f );
}


/* Fill "default" values */
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static void x264_slice_header_init( x264_t *h, x264_slice_header_t *sh,
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                                    x264_sps_t *sps, x264_pps_t *pps,
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                                    int i_idr_pic_id, int i_frame, int i_qp )
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{
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    x264_param_t *param = &h->param;
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    int i;
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    /* First we fill all field */
    sh->sps = sps;
    sh->pps = pps;

    sh->i_first_mb  = 0;
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    sh->i_last_mb   = h->sps->i_mb_width * h->sps->i_mb_height;
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    sh->i_pps_id    = pps->i_id;

    sh->i_frame_num = i_frame;

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    sh->b_mbaff = h->param.b_interlaced;
    sh->b_field_pic = 0;    /* no field support for now */
    sh->b_bottom_field = 0; /* not yet used */
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    sh->i_idr_pic_id = i_idr_pic_id;

    /* poc stuff, fixed later */
    sh->i_poc_lsb = 0;
    sh->i_delta_poc_bottom = 0;
    sh->i_delta_poc[0] = 0;
    sh->i_delta_poc[1] = 0;

    sh->i_redundant_pic_cnt = 0;

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    if( !h->mb.b_direct_auto_read )
    {
        if( h->mb.b_direct_auto_write )
            sh->b_direct_spatial_mv_pred = ( h->stat.i_direct_score[1] > h->stat.i_direct_score[0] );
        else
            sh->b_direct_spatial_mv_pred = ( param->analyse.i_direct_mv_pred == X264_DIRECT_PRED_SPATIAL );
    }
    /* else b_direct_spatial_mv_pred was read from the 2pass statsfile */
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    sh->b_num_ref_idx_override = 0;
    sh->i_num_ref_idx_l0_active = 1;
    sh->i_num_ref_idx_l1_active = 1;

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    sh->b_ref_pic_list_reordering_l0 = h->b_ref_reorder[0];
    sh->b_ref_pic_list_reordering_l1 = h->b_ref_reorder[1];

    /* If the ref list isn't in the default order, construct reordering header */
    /* List1 reordering isn't needed yet */
    if( sh->b_ref_pic_list_reordering_l0 )
    {
        int pred_frame_num = i_frame;
        for( i = 0; i < h->i_ref0; i++ )
        {
            int diff = h->fref0[i]->i_frame_num - pred_frame_num;
            if( diff == 0 )
                x264_log( h, X264_LOG_ERROR, "diff frame num == 0\n" );
            sh->ref_pic_list_order[0][i].idc = ( diff > 0 );
            sh->ref_pic_list_order[0][i].arg = abs( diff ) - 1;
            pred_frame_num = h->fref0[i]->i_frame_num;
        }
    }

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    sh->i_cabac_init_idc = param->i_cabac_init_idc;

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    sh->i_qp = i_qp;
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    sh->i_qp_delta = i_qp - pps->i_pic_init_qp;
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    sh->b_sp_for_swidth = 0;
    sh->i_qs_delta = 0;

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    /* If effective qp <= 15, deblocking would have no effect anyway */
    if( param->b_deblocking_filter
        && ( h->mb.b_variable_qp
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        || 15 < i_qp + 2 * X264_MIN(param->i_deblocking_filter_alphac0, param->i_deblocking_filter_beta) ) )
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    {
        sh->i_disable_deblocking_filter_idc = 0;
    }
    else
    {
        sh->i_disable_deblocking_filter_idc = 1;
    }
    sh->i_alpha_c0_offset = param->i_deblocking_filter_alphac0 << 1;
    sh->i_beta_offset = param->i_deblocking_filter_beta << 1;
}

static void x264_slice_header_write( bs_t *s, x264_slice_header_t *sh, int i_nal_ref_idc )
{
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    int i;

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    if( sh->b_mbaff )
    {
        assert( sh->i_first_mb % (2*sh->sps->i_mb_width) == 0 );
        bs_write_ue( s, sh->i_first_mb >> 1 );
    }
    else
        bs_write_ue( s, sh->i_first_mb );

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    bs_write_ue( s, sh->i_type + 5 );   /* same type things */
    bs_write_ue( s, sh->i_pps_id );
    bs_write( s, sh->sps->i_log2_max_frame_num, sh->i_frame_num );

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    if( !sh->sps->b_frame_mbs_only )
    {
        bs_write1( s, sh->b_field_pic );
        if ( sh->b_field_pic )
            bs_write1( s, sh->b_bottom_field );
    }

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    if( sh->i_idr_pic_id >= 0 ) /* NAL IDR */
    {
        bs_write_ue( s, sh->i_idr_pic_id );
    }

    if( sh->sps->i_poc_type == 0 )
    {
        bs_write( s, sh->sps->i_log2_max_poc_lsb, sh->i_poc_lsb );
        if( sh->pps->b_pic_order && !sh->b_field_pic )
        {
            bs_write_se( s, sh->i_delta_poc_bottom );
        }
    }
    else if( sh->sps->i_poc_type == 1 && !sh->sps->b_delta_pic_order_always_zero )
    {
        bs_write_se( s, sh->i_delta_poc[0] );
        if( sh->pps->b_pic_order && !sh->b_field_pic )
        {
            bs_write_se( s, sh->i_delta_poc[1] );
        }
    }

    if( sh->pps->b_redundant_pic_cnt )
    {
        bs_write_ue( s, sh->i_redundant_pic_cnt );
    }

    if( sh->i_type == SLICE_TYPE_B )
    {
        bs_write1( s, sh->b_direct_spatial_mv_pred );
    }
    if( sh->i_type == SLICE_TYPE_P || sh->i_type == SLICE_TYPE_SP || sh->i_type == SLICE_TYPE_B )
    {
        bs_write1( s, sh->b_num_ref_idx_override );
        if( sh->b_num_ref_idx_override )
        {
            bs_write_ue( s, sh->i_num_ref_idx_l0_active - 1 );
            if( sh->i_type == SLICE_TYPE_B )
            {
                bs_write_ue( s, sh->i_num_ref_idx_l1_active - 1 );
            }
        }
    }

    /* ref pic list reordering */
    if( sh->i_type != SLICE_TYPE_I )
    {
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        bs_write1( s, sh->b_ref_pic_list_reordering_l0 );
        if( sh->b_ref_pic_list_reordering_l0 )
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        {
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            for( i = 0; i < sh->i_num_ref_idx_l0_active; i++ )
            {
                bs_write_ue( s, sh->ref_pic_list_order[0][i].idc );
                bs_write_ue( s, sh->ref_pic_list_order[0][i].arg );
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            }
            bs_write_ue( s, 3 );
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        }
    }
    if( sh->i_type == SLICE_TYPE_B )
    {
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        bs_write1( s, sh->b_ref_pic_list_reordering_l1 );
        if( sh->b_ref_pic_list_reordering_l1 )
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        {
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            for( i = 0; i < sh->i_num_ref_idx_l1_active; i++ )
            {
                bs_write_ue( s, sh->ref_pic_list_order[1][i].idc );
                bs_write_ue( s, sh->ref_pic_list_order[1][i].arg );
            }
            bs_write_ue( s, 3 );
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        }
    }

    if( ( sh->pps->b_weighted_pred && ( sh->i_type == SLICE_TYPE_P || sh->i_type == SLICE_TYPE_SP ) ) ||
        ( sh->pps->b_weighted_bipred == 1 && sh->i_type == SLICE_TYPE_B ) )
    {
        /* FIXME */
    }

    if( i_nal_ref_idc != 0 )
    {
        if( sh->i_idr_pic_id >= 0 )
        {
            bs_write1( s, 0 );  /* no output of prior pics flag */
            bs_write1( s, 0 );  /* long term reference flag */
        }
        else
        {
            bs_write1( s, 0 );  /* adaptive_ref_pic_marking_mode_flag */
        }
    }

    if( sh->pps->b_cabac && sh->i_type != SLICE_TYPE_I )
    {
        bs_write_ue( s, sh->i_cabac_init_idc );
    }
    bs_write_se( s, sh->i_qp_delta );      /* slice qp delta */

    if( sh->pps->b_deblocking_filter_control )
    {
        bs_write_ue( s, sh->i_disable_deblocking_filter_idc );
        if( sh->i_disable_deblocking_filter_idc != 1 )
        {
            bs_write_se( s, sh->i_alpha_c0_offset >> 1 );
            bs_write_se( s, sh->i_beta_offset >> 1 );
        }
    }
}

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/* If we are within a reasonable distance of the end of the memory allocated for the bitstream, */
/* reallocate, adding an arbitrary amount of space (100 kilobytes). */
static void x264_bitstream_check_buffer( x264_t *h )
{
    if( ( h->param.b_cabac && (h->cabac.p_end - h->cabac.p < 2500) )
     || ( h->out.bs.p_end - h->out.bs.p < 2500 ) )
    {
        uint8_t *bs_bak = h->out.p_bitstream;
        intptr_t delta;
        int i;

        h->out.i_bitstream += 100000;
        h->out.p_bitstream = x264_realloc( h->out.p_bitstream, h->out.i_bitstream );
        delta = h->out.p_bitstream - bs_bak;

        h->out.bs.p_start += delta;
        h->out.bs.p += delta;
        h->out.bs.p_end = h->out.p_bitstream + h->out.i_bitstream;

        h->cabac.p_start += delta;
        h->cabac.p += delta;
        h->cabac.p_end = h->out.p_bitstream + h->out.i_bitstream;

        for( i = 0; i <= h->out.i_nal; i++ )
            h->out.nal[i].p_payload += delta;
    }
}

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/****************************************************************************
 *
 ****************************************************************************
 ****************************** External API*********************************
 ****************************************************************************
 *
 ****************************************************************************/

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static int x264_validate_parameters( x264_t *h )
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{
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#ifdef HAVE_MMX
    if( !(x264_cpu_detect() & X264_CPU_MMXEXT) )
    {
        x264_log( h, X264_LOG_ERROR, "your cpu does not support MMXEXT, but x264 was compiled with asm support\n");
        x264_log( h, X264_LOG_ERROR, "to run x264, recompile without asm support (configure --disable-asm)\n");
        return -1;
    }
#endif
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    if( h->param.i_width <= 0 || h->param.i_height <= 0 )
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    {
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        x264_log( h, X264_LOG_ERROR, "invalid width x height (%dx%d)\n",
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                  h->param.i_width, h->param.i_height );
        return -1;
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    }

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    if( h->param.i_width % 2 || h->param.i_height % 2 )
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    {
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        x264_log( h, X264_LOG_ERROR, "width or height not divisible by 2 (%dx%d)\n",
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                  h->param.i_width, h->param.i_height );
        return -1;
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    }
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    if( h->param.i_csp != X264_CSP_I420 )
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    {
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        x264_log( h, X264_LOG_ERROR, "invalid CSP (only I420 supported)\n" );
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        return -1;
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    }

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    if( h->param.i_threads == 0 )
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        h->param.i_threads = x264_cpu_num_processors() * 3/2;
    h->param.i_threads = x264_clip3( h->param.i_threads, 1, X264_THREAD_MAX );
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    if( h->param.i_threads > 1 )
    {
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#ifndef HAVE_PTHREAD
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        x264_log( h, X264_LOG_WARNING, "not compiled with pthread support!\n");
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        h->param.i_threads = 1;
#else
        if( h->param.i_scenecut_threshold >= 0 )
            h->param.b_pre_scenecut = 1;
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#endif
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    }
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    if( h->param.b_interlaced )
    {
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        if( h->param.analyse.i_me_method >= X264_ME_ESA )
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        {
            x264_log( h, X264_LOG_WARNING, "interlace + me=esa is not implemented\n" );
            h->param.analyse.i_me_method = X264_ME_UMH;
        }
        if( h->param.analyse.i_direct_mv_pred > X264_DIRECT_PRED_SPATIAL )
        {
            x264_log( h, X264_LOG_WARNING, "interlace + direct=temporal is not implemented\n" );
            h->param.analyse.i_direct_mv_pred = X264_DIRECT_PRED_SPATIAL;
        }
    }

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    if( h->param.rc.i_rc_method < 0 || h->param.rc.i_rc_method > 2 )
    {
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        x264_log( h, X264_LOG_ERROR, "no ratecontrol method specified\n" );
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        return -1;
    }
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    h->param.rc.f_rf_constant = x264_clip3f( h->param.rc.f_rf_constant, 0, 51 );
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    h->param.rc.i_qp_constant = x264_clip3( h->param.rc.i_qp_constant, 0, 51 );
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    if( h->param.rc.i_rc_method == X264_RC_CRF )
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        h->param.rc.i_qp_constant = h->param.rc.f_rf_constant;
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    if( (h->param.rc.i_rc_method == X264_RC_CQP || h->param.rc.i_rc_method == X264_RC_CRF)
        && h->param.rc.i_qp_constant == 0 )
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    {
        h->mb.b_lossless = 1;
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        h->param.i_cqm_preset = X264_CQM_FLAT;
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        h->param.psz_cqm_file = NULL;
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        h->param.rc.i_rc_method = X264_RC_CQP;
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        h->param.rc.f_ip_factor = 1;
        h->param.rc.f_pb_factor = 1;
        h->param.analyse.b_psnr = 0;
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        h->param.analyse.b_ssim = 0;
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        h->param.analyse.i_chroma_qp_offset = 0;
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        h->param.analyse.i_trellis = 0;
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        h->param.analyse.b_fast_pskip = 0;
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        h->param.analyse.i_noise_reduction = 0;
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        h->param.analyse.f_psy_rd = 0;
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        /* 8x8dct is not useful at all in CAVLC lossless */
        if( !h->param.b_cabac )
            h->param.analyse.b_transform_8x8 = 0;
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    }
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    if( h->param.rc.i_rc_method == X264_RC_CQP )
    {
        float qp_p = h->param.rc.i_qp_constant;
        float qp_i = qp_p - 6*log(h->param.rc.f_ip_factor)/log(2);
        float qp_b = qp_p + 6*log(h->param.rc.f_pb_factor)/log(2);
        h->param.rc.i_qp_min = x264_clip3( (int)(X264_MIN3( qp_p, qp_i, qp_b )), 0, 51 );
        h->param.rc.i_qp_max = x264_clip3( (int)(X264_MAX3( qp_p, qp_i, qp_b ) + .999), 0, 51 );
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        h->param.rc.i_aq_mode = 0;
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    }
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    h->param.rc.i_qp_max = x264_clip3( h->param.rc.i_qp_max, 0, 51 );
    h->param.rc.i_qp_min = x264_clip3( h->param.rc.i_qp_min, 0, h->param.rc.i_qp_max );
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    if( ( h->param.i_width % 16 || h->param.i_height % 16 )
        && h->param.i_height != 1080 && !h->mb.b_lossless )
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    {
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        // There's nothing special about 1080 in that the warning still applies to it,
        // but chances are the user can't help it if his content is already 1080p,
        // so there's no point in warning in that case.
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        x264_log( h, X264_LOG_WARNING,
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                  "width or height not divisible by 16 (%dx%d), compression will suffer.\n",
                  h->param.i_width, h->param.i_height );
    }

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    h->param.i_frame_reference = x264_clip3( h->param.i_frame_reference, 1, 16 );
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    if( h->param.i_keyint_max <= 0 )
        h->param.i_keyint_max = 1;
    h->param.i_keyint_min = x264_clip3( h->param.i_keyint_min, 1, h->param.i_keyint_max/2+1 );
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    h->param.i_bframe = x264_clip3( h->param.i_bframe, 0, X264_BFRAME_MAX );
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    h->param.i_bframe_bias = x264_clip3( h->param.i_bframe_bias, -90, 100 );
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    h->param.b_bframe_pyramid = h->param.b_bframe_pyramid && h->param.i_bframe > 1;
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    if( !h->param.i_bframe )
        h->param.i_bframe_adaptive = X264_B_ADAPT_NONE;
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    h->param.analyse.b_weighted_bipred = h->param.analyse.b_weighted_bipred && h->param.i_bframe > 0;
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    h->mb.b_direct_auto_write = h->param.analyse.i_direct_mv_pred == X264_DIRECT_PRED_AUTO
                                && h->param.i_bframe
                                && ( h->param.rc.b_stat_write || !h->param.rc.b_stat_read );
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    if( h->param.i_scenecut_threshold < 0 )
        h->param.b_pre_scenecut = 0;
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    h->param.i_deblocking_filter_alphac0 = x264_clip3( h->param.i_deblocking_filter_alphac0, -6, 6 );
    h->param.i_deblocking_filter_beta    = x264_clip3( h->param.i_deblocking_filter_beta, -6, 6 );
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    h->param.analyse.i_luma_deadzone[0] = x264_clip3( h->param.analyse.i_luma_deadzone[0], 0, 32 );
    h->param.analyse.i_luma_deadzone[1] = x264_clip3( h->param.analyse.i_luma_deadzone[1], 0, 32 );
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    h->param.i_cabac_init_idc = x264_clip3( h->param.i_cabac_init_idc, 0, 2 );
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    if( h->param.i_cqm_preset < X264_CQM_FLAT || h->param.i_cqm_preset > X264_CQM_CUSTOM )
        h->param.i_cqm_preset = X264_CQM_FLAT;

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    if( h->param.analyse.i_me_method < X264_ME_DIA ||
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        h->param.analyse.i_me_method > X264_ME_TESA )
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        h->param.analyse.i_me_method = X264_ME_HEX;
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    if( h->param.analyse.i_me_range < 4 )
        h->param.analyse.i_me_range = 4;
    if( h->param.analyse.i_me_range > 16 && h->param.analyse.i_me_method <= X264_ME_HEX )
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        h->param.analyse.i_me_range = 16;
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    if( h->param.analyse.i_me_method == X264_ME_TESA &&
        (h->mb.b_lossless || h->param.analyse.i_subpel_refine <= 1) )
        h->param.analyse.i_me_method = X264_ME_ESA;
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    h->param.analyse.i_subpel_refine = x264_clip3( h->param.analyse.i_subpel_refine, 1, 9 );
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    h->param.analyse.b_mixed_references = h->param.analyse.b_mixed_references && h->param.i_frame_reference > 1;
    h->param.analyse.inter &= X264_ANALYSE_PSUB16x16|X264_ANALYSE_PSUB8x8|X264_ANALYSE_BSUB16x16|
                              X264_ANALYSE_I4x4|X264_ANALYSE_I8x8;
    h->param.analyse.intra &= X264_ANALYSE_I4x4|X264_ANALYSE_I8x8;
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    if( !(h->param.analyse.inter & X264_ANALYSE_PSUB16x16) )
        h->param.analyse.inter &= ~X264_ANALYSE_PSUB8x8;
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    if( !h->param.analyse.b_transform_8x8 )
    {
        h->param.analyse.inter &= ~X264_ANALYSE_I8x8;
        h->param.analyse.intra &= ~X264_ANALYSE_I8x8;
    }
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    h->param.analyse.i_chroma_qp_offset = x264_clip3(h->param.analyse.i_chroma_qp_offset, -12, 12);
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    if( !h->param.b_cabac )
        h->param.analyse.i_trellis = 0;
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    h->param.analyse.i_trellis = x264_clip3( h->param.analyse.i_trellis, 0, 2 );
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    if( !h->param.analyse.i_trellis )
        h->param.analyse.f_psy_trellis = 0;
    h->param.analyse.f_psy_rd = x264_clip3f( h->param.analyse.f_psy_rd, 0, 10 );
    h->param.analyse.f_psy_trellis = x264_clip3f( h->param.analyse.f_psy_trellis, 0, 10 );
    if( h->param.analyse.i_subpel_refine < 6 )
        h->param.analyse.f_psy_rd = 0;
    h->mb.i_psy_rd = FIX8( h->param.analyse.f_psy_rd );
    /* Psy RDO increases overall quantizers to improve the quality of luma--this indirectly hurts chroma quality */
    /* so we lower the chroma QP offset to compensate */
    /* This can be triggered repeatedly on multiple calls to parameter_validate, but since encoding
     * uses the pps chroma qp offset not the param chroma qp offset, this is not a problem. */
    if( h->mb.i_psy_rd )
        h->param.analyse.i_chroma_qp_offset -= h->param.analyse.f_psy_rd < 0.25 ? 1 : 2;
    h->mb.i_psy_trellis = FIX8( h->param.analyse.f_psy_trellis / 4 );
    /* Psy trellis has a similar effect. */
    if( h->mb.i_psy_trellis )
        h->param.analyse.i_chroma_qp_offset -= h->param.analyse.f_psy_trellis < 0.25 ? 1 : 2;
    else
        h->mb.i_psy_trellis = 0;
    h->param.analyse.i_chroma_qp_offset = x264_clip3(h->param.analyse.i_chroma_qp_offset, -12, 12);
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    h->param.rc.i_aq_mode = x264_clip3( h->param.rc.i_aq_mode, 0, 1 );
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    if( h->param.rc.f_aq_strength <= 0 )
        h->param.rc.i_aq_mode = 0;
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    h->param.analyse.i_noise_reduction = x264_clip3( h->param.analyse.i_noise_reduction, 0, 1<<16 );
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    {
        const x264_level_t *l = x264_levels;
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        if( h->param.i_level_idc < 0 )
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        {
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            if( h->param.rc.i_rc_method == X264_RC_ABR && h->param.rc.i_vbv_buffer_size <= 0 )
                h->param.rc.i_vbv_max_bitrate = h->param.rc.i_bitrate * 2;
            h->sps = h->sps_array;
            x264_sps_init( h->sps, h->param.i_sps_id, &h->param );
            do h->param.i_level_idc = l->level_idc;
                while( l[1].level_idc && x264_validate_levels( h, 0 ) && l++ );
            if( h->param.rc.i_vbv_buffer_size <= 0 )
                h->param.rc.i_vbv_max_bitrate = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            while( l->level_idc && l->level_idc != h->param.i_level_idc )
                l++;
            if( l->level_idc == 0 )
            {
                x264_log( h, X264_LOG_ERROR, "invalid level_idc: %d\n", h->param.i_level_idc );
                return -1;
            }
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        }
        if( h->param.analyse.i_mv_range <= 0 )
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            h->param.analyse.i_mv_range = l->mv_range >> h->param.b_interlaced;
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        else
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            h->param.analyse.i_mv_range = x264_clip3(h->param.analyse.i_mv_range, 32, 512 >> h->param.b_interlaced);
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        if( h->param.analyse.i_direct_8x8_inference < 0 )
            h->param.analyse.i_direct_8x8_inference = l->direct8x8;
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    }

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    if( h->param.i_threads > 1 )
    {
        int r = h->param.analyse.i_mv_range_thread;
        int r2;
        if( r <= 0 )
        {
            // half of the available space is reserved and divided evenly among the threads,
            // the rest is allocated to whichever thread is far enough ahead to use it.
            // reserving more space increases quality for some videos, but costs more time
            // in thread synchronization.
            int max_range = (h->param.i_height + X264_THREAD_HEIGHT) / h->param.i_threads - X264_THREAD_HEIGHT;
            r = max_range / 2;
        }
        r = X264_MAX( r, h->param.analyse.i_me_range );
        r = X264_MIN( r, h->param.analyse.i_mv_range );
        // round up to use the whole mb row
        r2 = (r & ~15) + ((-X264_THREAD_HEIGHT) & 15);
        if( r2 < r )
            r2 += 16;
        x264_log( h, X264_LOG_DEBUG, "using mv_range_thread = %d\n", r2 );
        h->param.analyse.i_mv_range_thread = r2;
    }

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    if( h->param.rc.f_qblur < 0 )
        h->param.rc.f_qblur = 0;
    if( h->param.rc.f_complexity_blur < 0 )
        h->param.rc.f_complexity_blur = 0;

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    h->param.i_sps_id &= 31;

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    if( h->param.i_log_level < X264_LOG_INFO )
    {
        h->param.analyse.b_psnr = 0;
        h->param.analyse.b_ssim = 0;
    }

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    /* ensure the booleans are 0 or 1 so they can be used in math */
#define BOOLIFY(x) h->param.x = !!h->param.x
    BOOLIFY( b_cabac );
    BOOLIFY( b_deblocking_filter );
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    BOOLIFY( b_interlaced );
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    BOOLIFY( analyse.b_transform_8x8 );
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    BOOLIFY( analyse.i_direct_8x8_inference );
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    BOOLIFY( analyse.b_chroma_me );
    BOOLIFY( analyse.b_fast_pskip );
    BOOLIFY( rc.b_stat_write );
    BOOLIFY( rc.b_stat_read );
#undef BOOLIFY

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    return 0;
}

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static void mbcmp_init( x264_t *h )
{
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    int satd = !h->mb.b_lossless && h->param.analyse.i_subpel_refine > 1;
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    memcpy( h->pixf.mbcmp, satd ? h->pixf.satd : h->pixf.sad_aligned, sizeof(h->pixf.mbcmp) );
    memcpy( h->pixf.mbcmp_unaligned, satd ? h->pixf.satd : h->pixf.sad, sizeof(h->pixf.mbcmp_unaligned) );
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    h->pixf.intra_mbcmp_x3_16x16 = satd ? h->pixf.intra_satd_x3_16x16 : h->pixf.intra_sad_x3_16x16;
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    satd &= h->param.analyse.i_me_method == X264_ME_TESA;
    memcpy( h->pixf.fpelcmp, satd ? h->pixf.satd : h->pixf.sad, sizeof(h->pixf.fpelcmp) );
    memcpy( h->pixf.fpelcmp_x3, satd ? h->pixf.satd_x3 : h->pixf.sad_x3, sizeof(h->pixf.fpelcmp_x3) );
    memcpy( h->pixf.fpelcmp_x4, satd ? h->pixf.satd_x4 : h->pixf.sad_x4, sizeof(h->pixf.fpelcmp_x4) );
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}

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/****************************************************************************
 * x264_encoder_open:
 ****************************************************************************/
x264_t *x264_encoder_open   ( x264_param_t *param )
{
    x264_t *h = x264_malloc( sizeof( x264_t ) );
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    char buf[1000], *p;
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    int i;

    memset( h, 0, sizeof( x264_t ) );
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    /* Create a copy of param */
    memcpy( &h->param, param, sizeof( x264_param_t ) );

    if( x264_validate_parameters( h ) < 0 )
    {
        x264_free( h );
        return NULL;
    }

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    if( h->param.psz_cqm_file )
        if( x264_cqm_parse_file( h, h->param.psz_cqm_file ) < 0 )
        {
            x264_free( h );
            return NULL;
        }

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    if( h->param.rc.psz_stat_out )
        h->param.rc.psz_stat_out = strdup( h->param.rc.psz_stat_out );
    if( h->param.rc.psz_stat_in )
        h->param.rc.psz_stat_in = strdup( h->param.rc.psz_stat_in );

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    /* VUI */
    if( h->param.vui.i_sar_width > 0 && h->param.vui.i_sar_height > 0 )
    {
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        int i_w = param->vui.i_sar_width;
        int i_h = param->vui.i_sar_height;
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        x264_reduce_fraction( &i_w, &i_h );
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        while( i_w > 65535 || i_h > 65535 )
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        {
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            i_w /= 2;
            i_h /= 2;
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        }

        h->param.vui.i_sar_width = 0;
        h->param.vui.i_sar_height = 0;
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        if( i_w == 0 || i_h == 0 )
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        {
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            x264_log( h, X264_LOG_WARNING, "cannot create valid sample aspect ratio\n" );
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        }
        else
        {
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            x264_log( h, X264_LOG_INFO, "using SAR=%d/%d\n", i_w, i_h );
            h->param.vui.i_sar_width = i_w;
            h->param.vui.i_sar_height = i_h;
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        }
    }

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    x264_reduce_fraction( &h->param.i_fps_num, &h->param.i_fps_den );
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    /* Init x264_t */
    h->i_frame = 0;
    h->i_frame_num = 0;
    h->i_idr_pic_id = 0;

    h->sps = &h->sps_array[0];
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    x264_sps_init( h->sps, h->param.i_sps_id, &h->param );
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    h->pps = &h->pps_array[0];
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    x264_pps_init( h->pps, h->param.i_sps_id, &h->param, h->sps);
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    x264_validate_levels( h, 1 );
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    if( x264_cqm_init( h ) < 0 )
    {
        x264_free( h );
        return NULL;
    }
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    h->mb.i_mb_count = h->sps->i_mb_width * h->sps->i_mb_height;
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    /* Init frames. */
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    if( h->param.i_bframe_adaptive == X264_B_ADAPT_TRELLIS )
        h->frames.i_delay = X264_MAX(h->param.i_bframe,3)*4 + h->param.i_threads - 1;
    else
        h->frames.i_delay = h->param.i_bframe + h->param.i_threads - 1;
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    h->frames.i_max_ref0 = h->param.i_frame_reference;
    h->frames.i_max_ref1 = h->sps->vui.i_num_reorder_frames;
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    h->frames.i_max_dpb  = h->sps->vui.i_max_dec_frame_buffering;
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    h->frames.b_have_lowres = !h->param.rc.b_stat_read
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        && ( h->param.rc.i_rc_method == X264_RC_ABR
          || h->param.rc.i_rc_method == X264_RC_CRF
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          || h->param.i_bframe_adaptive
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          || h->param.b_pre_scenecut );
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    h->frames.b_have_lowres |= (h->param.rc.b_stat_read && h->param.rc.i_vbv_buffer_size > 0);
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    h->frames.i_last_idr = - h->param.i_keyint_max;
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    h->frames.i_input    = 0;
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    h->frames.last_nonb  = NULL;
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    h->i_ref0 = 0;
    h->i_ref1 = 0;

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    h->chroma_qp_table = i_chroma_qp_table + 12 + h->pps->i_chroma_qp_index_offset;

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    x264_rdo_init( );
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    /* init CPU functions */
    x264_predict_16x16_init( h->param.cpu, h->predict_16x16 );
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    x264_predict_8x8c_init( h->param.cpu, h->predict_8x8c );
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    x264_predict_8x8_init( h->param.cpu, h->predict_8x8 );
    x264_predict_4x4_init( h->param.cpu, h->predict_4x4 );

    x264_pixel_init( h->param.cpu, &h->pixf );
    x264_dct_init( h->param.cpu, &h->dctf );
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    x264_zigzag_init( h->param.cpu, &h->zigzagf, h->param.b_interlaced );
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    x264_mc_init( h->param.cpu, &h->mc );
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    x264_quant_init( h, h->param.cpu, &h->quantf );
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    x264_deblock_init( h->param.cpu, &h->loopf );
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    x264_dct_init_weights();
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    mbcmp_init( h );
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    p = buf + sprintf( buf, "using cpu capabilities:" );
    for( i=0; x264_cpu_names[i].flags; i++ )
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    {
        if( !strcmp(x264_cpu_names[i].name, "SSE2")
            && param->cpu & (X264_CPU_SSE2_IS_FAST|X264_CPU_SSE2_IS_SLOW) )
            continue;
        if( !strcmp(x264_cpu_names[i].name, "SSE3")
            && (param->cpu & X264_CPU_SSSE3 || !(param->cpu & X264_CPU_CACHELINE_64)) )
            continue;
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        if( (param->cpu & x264_cpu_names[i].flags) == x264_cpu_names[i].flags
            && (!i || x264_cpu_names[i].flags != x264_cpu_names[i-1].flags) )
            p += sprintf( p, " %s", x264_cpu_names[i].name );
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    }
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    if( !param->cpu )
        p += sprintf( p, " none!" );
    x264_log( h, X264_LOG_INFO, "%s\n", buf );
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    h->out.i_nal = 0;
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    h->out.i_bitstream = X264_MAX( 1000000, h->param.i_width * h->param.i_height * 4
        * ( h->param.rc.i_rc_method == X264_RC_ABR ? pow( 0.95, h->param.rc.i_qp_min )
          : pow( 0.95, h->param.rc.i_qp_constant ) * X264_MAX( 1, h->param.rc.f_ip_factor )));
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    h->thread[0] = h;
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    h->i_thread_num = 0;
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    for( i = 1; i < h->param.i_threads; i++ )
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        h->thread[i] = x264_malloc( sizeof(x264_t) );

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    for( i = 0; i < h->param.i_threads; i++ )
    {
        if( i > 0 )
            *h->thread[i] = *h;
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        h->thread[i]->fdec = x264_frame_pop_unused( h );
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        h->thread[i]->out.p_bitstream = x264_malloc( h->out.i_bitstream );
        if( x264_macroblock_cache_init( h->thread[i] ) < 0 )
            return NULL;
    }

    if( x264_ratecontrol_new( h ) < 0 )
        return NULL;

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    if( h->param.psz_dump_yuv )
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    {
        /* create or truncate the reconstructed video file */
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        FILE *f = fopen( h->param.psz_dump_yuv, "w" );
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        if( f )
            fclose( f );
        else
        {
            x264_log( h, X264_LOG_ERROR, "can't write to fdec.yuv\n" );
            x264_free( h );
            return NULL;
        }
    }

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    x264_log( h, X264_LOG_INFO, "profile %s, level %d.%d\n",
        h->sps->i_profile_idc == PROFILE_BASELINE ? "Baseline" :
        h->sps->i_profile_idc == PROFILE_MAIN ? "Main" :
        h->sps->i_profile_idc == PROFILE_HIGH ? "High" :
        "High 4:4:4 Predictive", h->sps->i_level_idc/10, h->sps->i_level_idc%10 );

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    return h;
}

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/****************************************************************************
 * x264_encoder_reconfig:
 ****************************************************************************/
int x264_encoder_reconfig( x264_t *h, x264_param_t *param )
{
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#define COPY(var) h->param.var = param->var
    COPY( i_frame_reference ); // but never uses more refs than initially specified
    COPY( i_bframe_bias );
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    if( h->param.i_scenecut_threshold >= 0 && param->i_scenecut_threshold >= 0 )
        COPY( i_scenecut_threshold ); // can't turn it on or off, only vary the threshold
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    COPY( b_deblocking_filter );
    COPY( i_deblocking_filter_alphac0 );
    COPY( i_deblocking_filter_beta );
    COPY( analyse.intra );
    COPY( analyse.inter );
    COPY( analyse.i_direct_mv_pred );
    COPY( analyse.i_me_method );
    COPY( analyse.i_me_range );
    COPY( analyse.i_noise_reduction );
    COPY( analyse.i_subpel_refine );
    COPY( analyse.i_trellis );
    COPY( analyse.b_chroma_me );
    COPY( analyse.b_dct_decimate );
    COPY( analyse.b_fast_pskip );
    COPY( analyse.b_mixed_references );
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    // can only twiddle these if they were enabled to begin with:
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    if( h->pps->b_transform_8x8_mode )
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        COPY( analyse.b_transform_8x8 );
    if( h->frames.i_max_ref1 > 1 )
        COPY( b_bframe_pyramid );
#undef COPY
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    mbcmp_init( h );
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    return x264_validate_parameters( h );
}

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/* internal usage */
static void x264_nal_start( x264_t *h, int i_type, int i_ref_idc )
{
    x264_nal_t *nal = &h->out.nal[h->out.i_nal];

    nal->i_ref_idc = i_ref_idc;
    nal->i_type    = i_type;

    nal->i_payload= 0;
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    nal->p_payload= &h->out.p_bitstream[bs_pos( &h->out.bs ) / 8];
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}
static void x264_nal_end( x264_t *h )
{
    x264_nal_t *nal = &h->out.nal[h->out.i_nal];
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    nal->i_payload = &h->out.p_bitstream[bs_pos( &h->out.bs ) / 8] - nal->p_payload;
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    h->out.i_nal++;
}

/****************************************************************************
 * x264_encoder_headers:
 ****************************************************************************/
int x264_encoder_headers( x264_t *h, x264_nal_t **pp_nal, int *pi_nal )
{
    /* init bitstream context */
    h->out.i_nal = 0;
    bs_init( &h->out.bs, h->out.p_bitstream, h->out.i_bitstream );

    /* Put SPS and PPS */
    if( h->i_frame == 0 )
    {
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        /* identify ourself */
        x264_nal_start( h, NAL_SEI, NAL_PRIORITY_DISPOSABLE );
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        x264_sei_version_write( h, &h->out.bs );
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        x264_nal_end( h );

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        /* generate sequence parameters */
        x264_nal_start( h, NAL_SPS, NAL_PRIORITY_HIGHEST );
        x264_sps_write( &h->out.bs, h->sps );
        x264_nal_end( h );

        /* generate picture parameters */
        x264_nal_start( h, NAL_PPS, NAL_PRIORITY_HIGHEST );
        x264_pps_write( &h->out.bs, h->pps );
        x264_nal_end( h );
    }
    /* now set output*/
    *pi_nal = h->out.i_nal;
    *pp_nal = &h->out.nal[0];
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    h->out.i_nal = 0;
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    return 0;
}

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static inline void x264_reference_build_list( x264_t *h, int i_poc )
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{
    int i;
    int b_ok;

    /* build ref list 0/1 */
    h->i_ref0 = 0;
    h->i_ref1 = 0;
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    for( i = 0; h->frames.reference[i]; i++ )
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    {
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        if( h->frames.reference[i]->i_poc < i_poc )
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        {
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            h->fref0[h->i_ref0++] = h->frames.reference[i];
        }
        else if( h->frames.reference[i]->i_poc > i_poc )
        {
            h->fref1[h->i_ref1++] = h->frames.reference[i];
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        }
    }
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    /* Order ref0 from higher to lower poc */
    do
    {
        b_ok = 1;
        for( i = 0; i < h->i_ref0 - 1; i++ )
        {
            if( h->fref0[i]->i_poc < h->fref0[i+1]->i_poc )
            {
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                XCHG( x264_frame_t*, h->fref0[i], h->fref0[i+1] );
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                b_ok = 0;
                break;
            }
        }
    } while( !b_ok );
    /* Order ref1 from lower to higher poc (bubble sort) for B-frame */
    do
    {
        b_ok = 1;
        for( i = 0; i < h->i_ref1 - 1; i++ )
        {
            if( h->fref1[i]->i_poc > h->fref1[i+1]->i_poc )
            {
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                XCHG( x264_frame_t*, h->fref1[i], h->fref1[i+1] );
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                b_ok = 0;
                break;
            }
        }
    } while( !b_ok );

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    /* In the standard, a P-frame's ref list is sorted by frame_num.
     * We use POC, but check whether explicit reordering is needed */
    h->b_ref_reorder[0] =
    h->b_ref_reorder[1] = 0;
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    if( h->sh.i_type == SLICE_TYPE_P )
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    {
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        for( i = 0; i < h->i_ref0 - 1; i++ )
            if( h->fref0[i]->i_frame_num < h->fref0[i+1]->i_frame_num )
            {
                h->b_ref_reorder[0] = 1;
                break;
            }
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    }
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    h->i_ref1 = X264_MIN( h->i_ref1, h->frames.i_max_ref1 );
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    h->i_ref0 = X264_MIN( h->i_ref0, h->frames.i_max_ref0 );
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    h->i_ref0 = X264_MIN( h->i_ref0, h->param.i_frame_reference ); // if reconfig() has lowered the limit
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    assert( h->i_ref0 + h->i_ref1 <= 16 );
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    h->mb.pic.i_fref[0] = h->i_ref0;
    h->mb.pic.i_fref[1] = h->i_ref1;
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}

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static void x264_fdec_filter_row( x264_t *h, int mb_y )
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{
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    /* mb_y is the mb to be encoded next, not the mb to be filtered here */
    int b_hpel = h->fdec->b_kept_as_ref;
    int b_deblock = !h->sh.i_disable_deblocking_filter_idc;
    int b_end = mb_y == h->sps->i_mb_height;
    int min_y = mb_y - (1 << h->sh.b_mbaff);
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    int max_y = b_end ? h->sps->i_mb_height : mb_y;
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    b_deblock &= b_hpel || h->param.psz_dump_yuv;
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    if( mb_y & h->sh.b_mbaff )
        return;
    if( min_y < 0 )
        return;

    if( !b_end )
    {
        int i, j;
        for( j=0; j<=h->sh.b_mbaff; j++ )
            for( i=0; i<3; i++ )
            {
                memcpy( h->mb.intra_border_backup[j][i],
                        h->fdec->plane[i] + ((mb_y*16 >> !!i) + j - 1 - h->sh.b_mbaff) * h->fdec->i_stride[i],
                        h->sps->i_mb_width*16 >> !!i );
            }
    }

    if( b_deblock )
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    {
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        int y;
        for( y = min_y; y < max_y; y += (1 << h->sh.b_mbaff) )
            x264_frame_deblock_row( h, y );
    }

    if( b_hpel )
    {
        x264_frame_expand_border( h, h->fdec, min_y, b_end );
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        x264_frame_filter( h, h->fdec, min_y, b_end );
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        x264_frame_expand_border_filtered( h, h->fdec, min_y, b_end );
    }

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    if( h->param.i_threads > 1 && h->fdec->b_kept_as_ref )
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    {
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        x264_frame_cond_broadcast( h->fdec, mb_y*16 + (b_end ? 10000 : -(X264_THREAD_HEIGHT << h->sh.b_mbaff)) );
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    }
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    min_y = X264_MAX( min_y*16-8, 0 );
    max_y = b_end ? h->param.i_height : mb_y*16-8;

    if( h->param.analyse.b_psnr )
    {
        int i;
        for( i=0; i<3; i++ )
            h->stat.frame.i_ssd[i] +=
                x264_pixel_ssd_wxh( &h->pixf,
                    h->fdec->plane[i] + (min_y>>!!i) * h->fdec->i_stride[i], h->fdec->i_stride[i],
                    h->fenc->plane[i] + (min_y>>!!i) * h->fenc->i_stride[i], h->fenc->i_stride[i],
                    h->param.i_width >> !!i, (max_y-min_y) >> !!i );
    }

    if( h->param.analyse.b_ssim )
    {
        x264_emms();
        /* offset by 2 pixels to avoid alignment of ssim blocks with dct blocks,
         * and overlap by 4 */
        min_y += min_y == 0 ? 2 : -6;
        h->stat.frame.f_ssim +=
            x264_pixel_ssim_wxh( &h->pixf,
                h->fdec->plane[0] + 2+min_y*h->fdec->i_stride[0], h->fdec->i_stride[0],
                h->fenc->plane[0] + 2+min_y*h->fenc->i_stride[0], h->fenc->i_stride[0],
                h->param.i_width-2, max_y-min_y );
    }
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}

static inline void x264_reference_update( x264_t *h )
{
    int i;

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    if( h->fdec->i_frame >= 0 )
        h->i_frame++;
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    if( !h->fdec->b_kept_as_ref )
    {
        if( h->param.i_threads > 1 )
        {
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            x264_frame_push_unused( h, h->fdec );
            h->fdec = x264_frame_pop_unused( h );
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        }
        return;
    }
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    /* move lowres copy of the image to the ref frame */
    for( i = 0; i < 4; i++)
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    {
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        XCHG( uint8_t*, h->fdec->lowres[i], h->fenc->lowres[i] );
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        XCHG( uint8_t*, h->fdec->buffer_lowres[i], h->fenc->buffer_lowres[i] );
    }
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    /* adaptive B decision needs a pointer, since it can't use the ref lists */
    if( h->sh.i_type != SLICE_TYPE_B )
        h->frames.last_nonb = h->fdec;

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    /* move frame in the buffer */
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    x264_frame_push( h->frames.reference, h->fdec );
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    if( h->frames.reference[h->frames.i_max_dpb] )
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        x264_frame_push_unused( h, x264_frame_shift( h->frames.reference ) );
    h->fdec = x264_frame_pop_unused( h );
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}

static inline void x264_reference_reset( x264_t *h )
{
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    while( h->frames.reference[0] )
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        x264_frame_push_unused( h, x264_frame_pop( h->frames.reference ) );
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    h->fdec->i_poc =
    h->fenc->i_poc = 0;
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}

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static inline void x264_slice_init( x264_t *h, int i_nal_type, int i_global_qp )
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{
    /* ------------------------ Create slice header  ----------------------- */
    if( i_nal_type == NAL_SLICE_IDR )
    {
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        x264_slice_header_init( h, &h->sh, h->sps, h->pps, h->i_idr_pic_id, h->i_frame_num, i_global_qp );
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        /* increment id */
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        h->i_idr_pic_id = ( h->i_idr_pic_id + 1 ) % 65536;
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    }
    else
    {
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        x264_slice_header_init( h, &h->sh, h->sps, h->pps, -1, h->i_frame_num, i_global_qp );
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        /* always set the real higher num of ref frame used */
        h->sh.b_num_ref_idx_override = 1;
        h->sh.i_num_ref_idx_l0_active = h->i_ref0 <= 0 ? 1 : h->i_ref0;
        h->sh.i_num_ref_idx_l1_active = h->i_ref1 <= 0 ? 1 : h->i_ref1;
    }

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    h->fdec->i_frame_num = h->sh.i_frame_num;

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    if( h->sps->i_poc_type == 0 )
    {
        h->sh.i_poc_lsb = h->fdec->i_poc & ( (1 << h->sps->i_log2_max_poc_lsb) - 1 );
        h->sh.i_delta_poc_bottom = 0;   /* XXX won't work for field */
    }
    else if( h->sps->i_poc_type == 1 )
    {
        /* FIXME TODO FIXME */
    }
    else
    {
        /* Nothing to do ? */
    }

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    x264_macroblock_slice_init( h );
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}

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static void x264_slice_write( x264_t *h )
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{
    int i_skip;
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    int mb_xy, i_mb_x, i_mb_y;
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    int i, i_list, i_ref;
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    /* init stats */
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    memset( &h->stat.frame, 0, sizeof(h->stat.frame) );
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    /* Slice */
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    x264_nal_start( h, h->i_nal_type, h->i_nal_ref_idc );
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    /* Slice header */
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    x264_slice_header_write( &h->out.bs, &h->sh, h->i_nal_ref_idc );
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    if( h->param.b_cabac )
    {
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        /* alignment needed */
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        bs_align_1( &h->out.bs );

        /* init cabac */
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        x264_cabac_context_init( &h->cabac, h->sh.i_type, h->sh.i_qp, h->sh.i_cabac_init_idc );
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        x264_cabac_encode_init ( &h->cabac, h->out.bs.p, h->out.bs.p_end );
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    }
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    h->mb.i_last_qp = h->sh.i_qp;
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    h->mb.i_last_dqp = 0;

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    i_mb_y = h->sh.i_first_mb / h->sps->i_mb_width;
    i_mb_x = h->sh.i_first_mb % h->sps->i_mb_width;
    i_skip = 0;

    while( (mb_xy = i_mb_x + i_mb_y * h->sps->i_mb_width) < h->sh.i_last_mb )
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    {
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        int mb_spos = bs_pos(&h->out.bs) + x264_cabac_pos