Rewrite inverse transforms to prevent integer overflows
The basic idea is that with intermediates of 19+sign bits and multipliers of 12+sign bits, the intermediates are 19+12=31+sign bits, and adding two of these together can overflow, which is UB in C. These are not valid AV1 streams, but they are codable, and so although we don't particularly care about the pixel-level output for such streams, we do want to prevent triggering UB, since that could be considered a security vulnerability. To resolve this, we clip all multipliers to 11 bit by inverting them: (a * constant_1 + b * constant_2 + 2048) >> 12, where constant_1 < 2048 but constant_2 >= 2048, is identical to: ((a * constant_1 + b * (4096 - constant_2) + 2048) >> 12) + b, and 4096 - constant_2 < 2048. In other places, where both constants are a multiple of 2, we can reduce the magnitude of both and round/shift by 11 instead of 12. Do this in dct4,8,16,32,64 as well as adst8,16. Also slightly simplify the final phase of idct64_1d by moving the add/sub to before the multiply. The adst4 is rewritten to be shaped like a matrix-multiply, and then use the same idea on all 4 multipliers in the matrix, since the sum of all 4 multipliers is still under 4096 in all cases. Fixes clusterfuzz-testcase-minimized-dav1d_fuzzer-5709759466962944, credits to oss-fuzz. Also fixes #223.